Eye HealthLifestyle Topics
Smoking increases the risk of developing cataracts – quit or avoid smoking to help keep your eyes healthy.
Know Your History
Those with a family history of eye disease are at a greater risk for developing eye diseases or conditions themselves.
Water & Contacts Don’t Mix
To help prevent eye infections, contact lenses should be removed before going swimming or in a hot tub.
It's Not OK to Skip a Day
To control glaucoma, take eye drops exactly as prescribed by your ophthalmologist—your sight depends on it.
Give your Eyes a Break
To prevent computer eyestrain, follow the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes, look at an object 20 feet away for 20 seconds.
Know Your Eye Care Team
Make sure you are seeing the right eye care provider for your condition or treatment.
Are You Fit at 40?
A baseline eye exam is recommended at age 40, when the signs of disease and change in vision may start to occur.
The importance of vision screening
There are many eye conditions and diseases that can affect a child’s vision. Some of the more common focus and alignment disorders and eye diseases are listed below. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to maintaining your child’s eye health. Follow these screening recommendations to preserve your child’s vision.
Focus and alignment disorders that affect vision
If any of the following conditions is suspected, the child will need to be examined by an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.).
What it is: Amblyopia is a term used to mean poor vision in an eye that has not developed normal sight (usually during early childhood). The condition is sometimes called “lazy eye.” It occurs when visual acuity is much better in one eye than the other. Amblyopia is common and affects two or three of every 100 people in the U.S.
What to look for: Amblyopia can be a result of strabismus (misaligned eyes). One eye may look straight ahead while the other turns in, out, up or down. The eye turn may be constant or may be occasional or intermittent. Signals from the misaligned eye are “turned off” by the brain to avoid double vision, so the child uses only the better-seeing eye. Strabismus affects about 4 percent of children in the U.S. Amblyopia can result from eye problems other than strabismus as well.
What to do: If it seems that the vision in one of the child’s eyes is significantly better (or weaker) than the other, the child needs to be examined by an Eye M.D.
Ptosis involves a drooping upper eyelid that covers the eye either somewhat or entirely, and so blocks vision.
If the surface of the eye, which is normally clear, instead appears cloudy, the child may have a cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment.
See Also: Children's Vision Screening
Common Childhood Eye Diseases
When the following diseases are suspected, the child needs to be examined by a primary care physician or children’s health service, who will co-manage the child’s care with an Eye M.D. when necessary.
Conjunctivitis (pink eye)
Conjunctivitis can refer to either a viral or bacterial infection (both very contagious), or an allergic reaction (not contagious).
What to look for:
- The eye appears red or pink due to inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, filmy membrane that covers the inside of eyelids and white part of eye.
- The eye tears, has discharge or both, and is usually itchy and uncomfortable.
- When a viral infection is the cause, the child may also have a fever, sore throat and runny nose.
What to do: If the child has (or may have) contagious pink eye, he or she needs to stay home from school or return home to avoid infecting others. Contagious pink eye usually resolves in three to seven days. When the tearing and discharge from the eyes has stopped the child may return to school.
Read more about how to prevent the spread of conjunctivitis in the classroom.
Chalazion looks like a small lump on the eyelid, and may occur when a meibomian gland (an oil-secreting gland in the eyelid) becomes clogged. It is not caused by infection.
A stye looks like a red, sore lump near the edge of the eyelid; it is caused by an infected eyelash follicle.
Preseptal or Orbital Cellulitis
Cellulitis is an infection related to trauma, an upper respiratory infection or an eyelid infection.
What to look for: The tissues around the eye appear red and painfully swollen. The condition usually occurs in one eye, which may be swollen shut. The child may have a fever. More serious preseptal or orbital cellulitis infections can cause decreased vision, an inability to move the eye, and the appearance of the eye being pushed forward.
What to do: Both forms of cellulitis are serious conditions that require urgent medical attention. Take the child to a primary care doctor or other qualified health professional who will co-manage the child's treatment with an ophthalmologist.