Pigment dispersion syndrome is a condition in which increased amounts of pigment, the material that gives your iris its color, circulate in other parts of the eye. The tiny granules of pigment can clog your eye’s drainage system, causing eye pressure problems.
To maintain a constant healthy eye pressure, your eye continually produces a small amount of aqueous humor, the clear liquid in your eye, while an equal amount of this fluid flows out of your eye. If the aqueous humor does not flow out of the eye properly, fluid pressure in the eye (intraocular pressure, or IOP) builds up and, over time, causes damage to the optic nerve fibers. This condition is called glaucoma. When pigment dispersion syndrome has progressed to this stage, it is called pigmentary glaucoma. Not everyone who has pigment dispersion syndrome will develop pigmentary glaucoma.