Macular telangiectasia is a disease affecting the macula, causing loss of central vision. The macula is a small area in the retina — the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye — that is responsible for your central vision, allowing you to see fine details clearly.
Macular telangiectasia develops when there are problems with the tiny blood vessels around the fovea, the center of the macula. There are two types of macular telangiectasia, and each affects the blood vessels differently.
Type 2 macular telangiectasia
The most common form of macular telangiectasia is Type 2 macular telangiectasia, in which the tiny blood vessels around the fovea leak, become dilated (widen), or both. In some cases, new blood vessels form under the retina and they can also break or leak. Fluid from leaking blood vessels causes the macula to swell or thicken, a condition called macular edema, which affects your central vision. Also, scar tissue can sometimes form over the macula and the fovea, causing loss of detail vision. Type 2 affects both eyes but not necessarily with the same severity.
Type 1 macular telangiectasia
In Type 1 macular telangiectasia, the blood vessels become dilated forming tiny aneurysms, causing swelling and damaging macular cells. The disease almost always occurs in one eye, which differentiates it from Type 2.
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