There are many conditions that can affect the clarity of the entire cornea. For instance, trauma or injury to the cornea can cause scarring, as can infections (especially herpes keratitis). A hereditary condition called Fuchs' dystrophy causes corneal failure. Keratoconus (pictured) causes a steep curving of the cornea. Sometimes corneal failure can occur after an eye surgery such as cataract surgery.
A corneal transplant is needed if vision cannot be corrected satisfactorily with eyeglasses or contact lenses, or if painful swelling cannot be relieved by medications or special contact lenses.
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